Ceramic brake pads are mainly comprised of ceramic fibers engineered to be a certain length and width, and other filling materials bonded together. They might also have copper fibers.
Ceramic brake pads generally work very well in high performance vehicles and racing cars that generate high levels of heat when braking, but can also be used in daily driven vehicles.
Ceramic pads wear and break down very slowly, and are very durable. The ceramic content of the brake pads makes them extremely lightweight and they generate less dust on friction. Ceramic brake pads are designed to perform well under harsh braking and can dissipate heat quickly.
Ceramic brake pads tend to be expensive and are thus not well suited for keeping costs low for regular driving needs.